I create these images by moving the camera whilst the shutter is open, resulting in semi-abstract or impressionistic scenes. The effect you see are derived purely from this technique and not by digital manipulation using a computer.
Getting the right combination of exposure time and degree of camera movement requires much experimentation. Opening the shutter at just the right moment, as the scene passes in front of the moving lens, is as much a matter of luck as it is judgement and so perseverance is required to capture precisely the desired composition.
I adopted this technique because, having been a traditional landscape photographer for many years, I wanted instead to create images that have more of a “modern art” feel to them.